Sunday, January 14, 2018

When Helping Hurts. Why Innovative Approaches Are Needed to Serve At-Risk Youth

In a world where so many right-hearted people spend so much time and money on social interventions meant to help, doesn’t it make sense to figure out which ones work and which ones don’t?


That’s the question economist Stephen J. Dubner explored on an episode of his Freakonomics radio show called “When Helping Hurts.”


Dubner took a look at a longitudinal study that began during the Great Depression and is still going on today. Back in the 1930s, Dr. Richard Clark Cabot commissioned what came to be known as the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study. The study looked at the effects of common interventions such as mentoring, counseling, homework help, and summer camp.


The results are surprising.


They show that these supportive programs actually do not have the intended consequences of helping at-risk youth. In fact, it is quite the contrary: These programs actually hurt those who receive services.


Why?


The short answer is these programs don’t change the circumstances of their target audience. Yes, they are exposed to better opportunities and are receiving intermittent support, but at the end of the day, they don’t have the full structures and systems set up for success. Another factor is their environment. These programs don't change the fact that for most of the time they are continually surrounded by others who share their circumstances, poverty, crime, joblessness, lack of education, incarceration, absent parent(s).


Certain interventions like group therapy or summer camps have a particular negative effect which is likely the result of something called contagion or deviancy training.  This means that if a youth is talking about something like using drugs or shoplifting, others might respond by smiling or acting in an encouraging, rather than disapproving, manner. The research shows if such conversations and responses occur, there will likely be an increase in those behavior in the future.


Ultimately, the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study showed that on all seven measures (longevity, incarceration, mental health, drug/alcohol use, physical well-being, job satisfaction, relationship satisfaction), the treatment group who received interventions did statistically, significantly worse off than the control group. Not only that, there was also the dose effect the longer the intervention, the more likely the damage would be done.


Does this mean we should just stop interventions for at risk youth?


The Verdict?


It depends.


If we have research showing a certain type of intervention makes no positive difference, and in fact worsens someone’s situation, then, yes. We should stop.

Stop the mentoring, the group counseling, the summer camp programs if we have no evidence of effectiveness.


But then what? Do nothing?

Of course not. But before we do something, we need to look at what works for at-risk youth, then we need to measure its effectiveness.

The good news is there are innovative solutions that have been proven to work. Maybe these are even solutions you are implementing where you live or work. Want to know what they are? That is what we'll look at in a series of future posts called: Innovative approaches to supporting at-risk youth.

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Introducing Students & Parents to the @ISTE Standards for Students

The ISTE Standards for Students names practices in which many innovative educators are already engaged. It gives a standard language for educators to speak to each other about their work. It also provides language and justification for doing this work when speaking with administrators. When implementing standards with students, it is also important to introduce them and their parents to the standards which you are working towards.

To help with that, ISTE teamed up with Flocabulary to create this video. 

7 Ways: The ISTE Standards for Students Music Video


The poster below illustrates the seven standards highlighted in the video. 

standards-poster-500full.png
Download this poster for free from the ISTE site.


Bringing the Standards to Life in The Classroom

When implementing lessons that bring these standards to life, think about how this might be reflected for students.  Here are some ideas:
  • Have student digital portfolios set up by the standards. 
  • Have classroom bulletin boards that represent each standard. On the bulletin board, provide sample student projects that come to life with QR codes.
  • Let students know what standards they are addressing in their work.
  • Showcase student work organized by standard on your teacher website.

Your turn

What has your experience been with introducing the ISTE Standards? Have you tried any of these strategies? Have you tried something not listed here? If you have yet to introduce the standards, do you think you might use some of the suggestions here?

Sunday, January 7, 2018

5 Ideas for Keeping Students At The Center of Learning #TLTechLive

Image result for continuum of voice
Personalize Learning, LLC designed Continuum of Voice adapted from
"Motivation, Engagement, & Student Voice" by Toshalis & Nakkula
from Students at the Center @StudentcCntrHub - Visual designed
by Sylvia Duckworth @sylviaduckworth
For those who work in the field of education, it seems obvious that we would keep students at the center of all that we do, but often this is forgotten. When it is forgotten students suffer.

So how do we make sure we put students at the center of all we do?

This was one of the topics discussed by a group of innovative district leaders who came together from around the country to explore important issues in education at the Tech & Learning Leadership Summit in Phoenix, Arizona.  Here are some ideas these leaders shared to ensure students remain at the center of our work.

1) Align learning to student preferences

How are you designing opportunities in alignment with the way students learn best? At the Phoenix Coding Academy they use a tool called Indigo (similar to Thrively or Naviance… aka Myers Briggs for young people). As a result educators and students can use these profiles to customize their school work to ensure what they do best matches the needs indicated in their learning profiles. The profiles also help students see the type of career that might be best matched to their strengths.

2) Relationships are key

When using technology, it is imperative to remember that the relationship between teacher and student is still key. An advantage of technology is that it can replace some of the work typically done by a teacher such as providing instant feedback, lectures on demand. Some administrators see this as an opportunity to pile on the number of students a teacher has. Administrators who understand the importance of relationships know that this shift in responsibilities should result in the teacher being able to provide more time and individual focus on supporting the students in front of them.  Models like Big Picture Learning ensure that teachers have very small class loads because only by building relationships can we really meaningfully impact children.

3) Build learning networks

Traditionally teachers with their teacher’s guide in hand had the power to dole out information to their little disciples. That should no longer be the case in our information rich, connected world.  Today, the teacher should no longer be at the center of instruction. Instead, the teacher should be guiding and empowering digital learners who are the center of their own learning network aligned with their passions, interests, and abilities. This means supporting students in safely connecting to a network of people who can help guide and support their learning goals.  While this can certainly mean people from within the community, with technology there are no geographical boundaries.  So this can mean helping them connect with experts, authors, and others who share their interests from around the globe.  You can read more about how to do this in the books The Educator’s Guide to Creating Connections and Supporting Student Personal Learning Networks.

4) Give students opportunities to hold leadership roles

Not only should students be at the center, but students can be empowered to have leadership roles. For example allow students to lead digital citizenship initiatives. Create a student tech support team at your school where students are given leadership roles. Does your school have a leadership team that helps to make important decisions? Make sure students are on that team.  

5) Involve students in all aspects of their education

It is essential that we communicate with the people that ultimately will be impacted and give them a platform for input. This means they should be a part of conversations about curriculum design, classroom environment, facilities, purchasing, etc. This isn’t a one time conversation. It is ongoing. Bring everyone to the table at regular intervals to not only to develop a clear plan, but also to discuss issues that come up during implementation and execution and come up with solutions.

Your turn

What do you think? Are there some ideas shared here that exist where you work? If not, why not? Are there some you may be able to introduce? Are there ideas you use that are not mentioned here? What are they?

Thursday, January 4, 2018

Snow Day Or Not? It's Not That Hard.

save imageNew York City is the City that never sleeps and if you can make it here you'll make it anywhere. We have a reputation to live up to. Perhaps this is why the snow day thing is so difficult for our mayor and chancellor to call.  

No matter what they decide, some people will be mad. We all know for the most part teachers and students celebrate snow days. But for others it's a headache!


Childcare and Meals

In NYC, as in other places, a layer of difficulty is that parents depend on schools for childcare and meals for their children. Taking off of work for some parents is not really an option because they might not get paid for that day, or worse. They could get fired. 

So what is a chancellor, mayor, or in other districts a principal or superintendent to do?

Have a plan.  

It goes like this...

Have fewer schools open because there will be fewer staff and fewer students so you only need fewer schools and fewer meals.

The schools are the same schools used as emergency shelters.  Teachers and students are pre-assigned to their emergency shelter school. They also can indicate if they are likely to come in or not should various scenarios present themselves i.e. snow day, hurricane.

It's not that hard

If you are thinking this would be too hard to figure out, just stop.

This is the 21st century and we live in a city where we have Computer Science for All.  An algorithm makes this elementary.

Everybody Wins

The result is this:
Students who need a place to go have one.

Teachers who are in danger commuting don't have to come in. Teachers who are not, come in. Those teachers who come in receive comp time in the form of a few extra prep periods. Good principals know how to do that at no expense to the school i.e. field trip, assembly, etc. etc. There are lots of other cost neutral options as well, but that is fodder for another post. 

This shouldn't be that hard. In fact it should be a formula based on predictions by the National Weather Service by noon the day prior. If it's wrong, it's wrong. That's how forecasts are today, but still, a plan is in place and everybody wins.